Sources of common metal exposure are:

• Dental restorations: fillings, crowns, pins, root-fillings, implants. Amalgam/silver fillings contain mercury, silver, tin, copper and zinc. Crown can contain gold, silver, palladium, copper, chromium, indium, gallium, iridium, nickel and more. Implants are often made of titanium, aluminium and vanadium.

• Orthopedic and body implants such as hip replacements, screws, nails, clips, usually made from titanium or stainless steel.

• Common implant alloys are:

• Stainless steel: Nickel, chromium, manganese, molybdenum

• Cobalt-chromium molybdenum steel: Chromium, molybdenum, nickel, iron, manganese, tungsten, aluminum, titanium, cobalt

• Vitallium: Cobalt, chromium, manganese, molybdenum

• Titanium: Aluminum, vanadium, nickel (trace)


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